^ March 16, 1992 memo from Mariam Leder, NSF Assistant General Counsel to Steven Wolff, Division Director, NSF DNCRI (included at page 128 of Management of NSFNET, a transcript of the March 12, 1992 hearing before the Subcommittee on Science of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, Hon. Rick Boucher, subcommittee chairman, presiding)
The U.S. Congress passed the Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act in 2010. Consumer Electronics Association vice president Michael Petricone was worried that seizure was a blunt instrument that could harm legitimate businesses. After a joint operation in February 15, 2011, the DOJ and the Department of Homeland Security claimed to have seized ten domains of websites involved in advertising and distributing child pornography, but also mistakenly seized the domain name of a large DNS provider, temporarily replacing 84,000 websites with seizure notices.
VPS is an abbreviation of Virtual Private Server. This type of web hosting plan is more expensive than shared hosting but still cheaper than dedicated hosting. With VPS, some of the resources are communal, but not all. Memory and CPU time are shared amongst those on the server, but certain shares of said resources are allotted to each domain. This gives you greater computing power or flexibility in the case of traffic surges.
Why should you upgrade to a VPS or Dedicated Server? This may have to do with the type of site you have. If you have a lot of photos and videos that are password protected, this may be against your host’s rules for shared accounts which often prohibit file storage. Or you have a lot of site visitors, the metaphorical guests in your apartment, and your account may start getting crowded as those guests start clogging up the “hallways” otherwise known as CPU capacity. Another reason is to have full control over the configuration of your server, if you own a house you can make modifications you may not be allowed to make in an apartment or townhome.
A domain must be unique (for example there can only be one single Yahoo.com) and must be registered with a domain registrar (ie. NameCheap); while for sub domains, users can freely add it on top of the existing domain as long as their web host provide the service. Some would say sub-domains are the ‘third level’ domains in the sense that they are simply “sub folders” under the domain root directory, normally used to organize your website content in different languages or different categories.
Migration or transfer services are often free or offered at a reasonable fee. These services help move your existing site to the new hosting provider. They can save a huge amount of hassle. Just remember that the migration process is often automated, and may fit in with the host's processes and needs rather than yours. Not everything may migrate, and you may find the organization of the newly migrated site makes for harder maintenance in the long run.